# Scores and Goals

• cumulative score: An overall score, not related to a particular skill set (see domain score).
• cut score: A cut score is either a converted Percentile Rank (PR) score or, in the case of state benchmarks, a Scaled Score (SS). Cut scores that are chosen as targets for students to meet or surpass are benchmarks.
• domain score: A score relating to a particular skill set. For example, you could compare schools based on their cumulative scores (q.v.) in math, or you could have the comparison use the score for a specific domain within math (Numbers and Operations; Algebra; Geometry and Measurement; or Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability).
• goal: A target that a group or group set of schools should be trying to achieve. Goals are set on the Decide and Act/Adjust views; the goals available depend on the selected groups/group sets and metrics. Example: a goal to have 60 percent of the students in each school pass an upcoming spring assessment.

### Student Growth Percentile (Projection Model)

The SGP Projection Model, developed by Dr. Damian Betebenner, provides the latest in growth projections, including Betebenner’s well-known catch-up, keep-up growth projections to provide longitudinal SGP data.

Student Growth Percentile Projection Model (SGP PM) utilizes the historical growth trajectories of Star examinees to map out what the range of potential growth trajectories for each student will lead to, including what growth is necessary for each student to reach/maintain proficiency. The SGP Projection Model is updated regularly so that students projections are based upon the most recent data available.

For more information about Student Growth Percentiles, refer to these documents:

A Primer on Student Growth Percentiles by Damian Betebenner

A Technical Overview of the Student Growth Percentile Methodology: Student Growth Percentiles and Percentile Growth Projections/Trajectories by Damian Betebenner

### Star Unified Scale

The Unified Scale accomplishes two different objectives. First, it links Star Early Literacy Enterprise to the Star Reading scale. Second, it creates a new scale, applicable to Early Literacy, Reading, and Math, that has the desirable measurement properties of a Rasch score scale. The Unified Scale provides you with increased measurement precision and one consistent scale across all computer-adaptive Star assessments.

For more information, see Star Unified Scale.